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Endocrine Tests and/or Testicular Volume are Not Predictive of Successful Sperm Retrieval by Conventional Multiple Testicular Sperm Extraction in Nonobstructive Azoospermia

    Objectives: This study aimed to determine the role of presurgical markers in the prediction of sperm retrieval by conventional Multiple Testicular Sperm Extraction in infertile Vietnamese men with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA).

    Patients and Methods: Retrospective descriptive analysis of 136 infertile men with azoospermia, examined from August 2014 to July 2018. Patients underwent stepwise surgical sperm retrieval via percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration, testicular sperm aspiration, then conventional multiple testicular sperm extraction in up to three locations, and procedures stopped as soon as sperm were detected. Factors were analyzed to determine the prediction of the likelihood of successful sperm retrieval, in men with NOA.

    Results: The overall success rate of sperm retrieval in men with azoospermia was 49.3%, but it was only 18.4% in NOA group. The difference in testicular volume between men with successful sperm retrieval and unsuccessful sperm retrieval was not statistically significant in NOA group (5.68 ± 2.37 vs. 4.46 ± 2.83, p = 0.138). The differences in the endocrine tests between the two groups were also not significant in terms of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone (p > 0.05). Multivariable analysis of predictive factors of sperm retrieval in NOA groups found no significant difference, except testicular density (p = 0.015).

    Conclusions: In infertile men with NOA, neither an endocrine test nor testicular volume should be used for predicting the results of surgical sperm retrieval by conventional multiple testicular sperm extraction.


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