World Scientific
Skip main navigation

Cookies Notification

We use cookies on this site to enhance your user experience. By continuing to browse the site, you consent to the use of our cookies. Learn More
Our website is made possible by displaying certain online content using javascript.
In order to view the full content, please disable your ad blocker or whitelist our website

System Upgrade on Mon, Jun 21st, 2021 at 1am (EDT)

During this period, the E-commerce and registration of new users may not be available for up to 6 hours.
For online purchase, please visit us again. Contact us at [email protected] for any enquiries.


    Large companies increasingly look for collaborations with new ventures to accelerate their innovation process, and researchers stress the potential of such partnerships to develop innovations. But when are entrepreneurs willing to engage in a partnership with a larger player? We seek to understand when founders of new ventures are willing to engage in such asymmetric partnerships through consideration of the characteristics of the entrepreneurial decision maker and the perceived attributes of the larger counterpart. The results of a conjoint experiment with 115 startup entrepreneurs suggest that among the partner selection criteria a high level of openness on the part of the large corporate company and concise contractual design signal trustworthiness to entrepreneurs, which has a positive impact on their willingness to engage in collaborative innovation. Our study also suggests that entrepreneurs’ self-efficacy reduces the willingness to partner and the positive impact of concise contractual designs. The results have implications for the self-concept and design of innovation and partner management of large firms, and for entrepreneurs who consider asymmetric partnerships a growth opportunity.


    • Aldrich, H and E Auster [1986] Even dwarfs started small: Liabilities of age and size and their strategic implications. Research in Organizational Behavior, 8, 165–198. Google Scholar
    • Alvarez, S and JB Barney [2001] How entrepreneurial firms can benefit from alliances with large partners. The Academy of Management Executive, 15(1), 139–148. Google Scholar
    • Bahemia, H and B Squire [2010] A contingent perspective of open innovation in new product development projects. International Journal of Innovation Management, 14(4), 603–627. LinkGoogle Scholar
    • Bandura, A [1977] Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191–215. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Baron, RA and MDM Ensley [2006] Opportunity recognition as the detection of meaningful patterns: Evidence from comparisons of novice and experienced entrepreneurs. Management Science, 52(9), 1331–1334. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Baum, JR and E Locke [2004] The relationship of entrepreneurial traits, skill, and motivation to subsequent venture growth. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(4), 587–598. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Becerra, M, R Lunnan and L Huemer [2008] Trustworthiness, risk, and the transfer of tacit and explicit knowledge between alliance partners. Journal of Management Studies, 45(4), 691–713. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Bengtsson, O and DH Hsu (2010). How do venture capital partners match with start-up founders? Unpublished working paper, University of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania. Google Scholar
    • Berger, ESC and A Kuckertz [2016] The Challenge of Dealing with Complexity in Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Technology Research: An Introduction, ESC BergerA Kuckertz (Eds.), pp. 1–9. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
    • Blomqvist, K, P Hurmelinna and R Seppänen [2005] Playing the collaboration game right: Balancing trust and contracting. Technovation, 25(5), 497–504. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Bouncken, RB, J Gast, S Kraus and M Bogers [2015] Coopetition: A systematic review, synthesis, and future research directions. Review of Managerial Science, 9(3), 577–601. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Bryant, P [2009] Self-regulation and moral awareness among entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing, 24(5), 505–518. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Busenitz, LW and JB Barney [1997] Differences between entrepreneurs and managers in large organizations: Biases and heuristics in strategic decision-making. Journal of Business Venturing, 12(1), 9–30. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Camerer, C and D Lovallo [1999] Overconfidence and excess entry: An experimental approach. American Economic Review, 89(1), 306–318. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Cardon, MS and CP Kirk [2015] Entrepreneurial passion as mediator of the self-efficacy to persistence relationship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 39(5), 1027–1050. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Cassar, G [2006] Entrepreneur opportunity costs and intended venture growth. Journal of Business Venturing, 21(5), 610–632. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Cassar, G and H Friedman [2009] Does self-efficacy affect entrepreneurial investment? Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 3(3), 241–260. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Chen, CC, PG Greene and A Crick [1998] Does entrepreneurial self-efficacy distinguish entrepreneurs from managers? Journal of Business Venturing, 13(4), 295–316. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Chen, G, SM Gully and D Eden [2004] General self-efficacy and self-esteem: Toward theoretical and empirical distinction between correlated self-evaluations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(3), 375–395. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Chin, KS, BL Chan and PK Lam [2008] Identifying and prioritizing critical success factors for coopetition strategy. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 108(4), 437–454. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Choi, YR and DA Shepherd [2004] Entrepreneurs’ decisions to exploit opportunities. Journal of Management, 30(3), 377–395. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Chung, S, H Singh and K Lee [2000] Complementarity, status similarity and social capital as drivers of alliance formation. Strategic Management Journal, 22(1), 1–22. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
    • Colombo, MG, L Grilli and E Piva [2006] In search of complementary assets: The determinants of alliance formation of high-tech start-ups. Research Policy, 35, 1166–1199. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Cummings, JL and SR Holmberg [2012] Best-fit alliance partners: The use of critical success factors in a comprehensive partner selection process. Long Range Planning, 45, 136–159. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Das, TK and IY He [2006] Entrepreneurial firms in search of established partners: Review and recommendations. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 12(3), 114–143. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
    • Das, TK and BS Teng [2000] A resource-based theory of strategic alliances. Journal of Management, 26(1), 31–61. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Das, TK and BS Teng [2001] Trust, control, and risk in strategic alliances: An integrated framework. Organization Studies, 22(2), 251–283. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Das, TK and BS Teng [2002] The dynamics of alliance conditions in the alliance development process. Journal of Management Studies, 39(5), 725–746. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • De Man, AP, GM Duysters and I Neyens [2009] The Third State of Alliance Management Study. Needham, MA: Association of Strategic Alliance Professionals. Google Scholar
    • De Meyer, A [1999] Using strategic partnerships to create a sustainable competitive position for hi-tech start-up firms. R&D Management, 29(4), 323–328. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Daellenbach, US and SJ Davenport [2004] Establishing trust during the formation of technology alliances. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 29(2), 198–202. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
    • DeTienne, DR, DA Shepherd and JO De Castro [2008] The fallacy of “only the strong survive”: The effects of extrinsic motivation on the persistence decisions for under-performing firms. Journal of Business Venturing, 23(5), 528–546. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Doz, Y [1987] Technology partnerships between larger and smaller firms: Some critical issues. International Studies of Management & Organization, 17(4), 31–57. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
    • Drover, W, MS Wood and Y Fassin [2014] Take the money or run? Investors’ ethical reputation and entrepreneurs’ willingness to partner. Journal of Business Venturing, 29(6), 723–740. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Dwyer, R, P Schurr and S Oh [1987] Developing buyer-seller relationship. Journal of Marketing, 51(2), 11–27. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Dyer, JH and W Chu [2003] The role of trustworthiness in reducing transaction costs and improving performance: Empirical evidence from the United States, Japan, and Korea. Organization, 14(1), 57–68. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Eisenberg, EM and MG Witten [1987] Reconsidering openness in organizational communication. Academy of Management Review, 12(3), 418–426. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Enkel, E, A Groemminger and S Heil [2017] Managing technological distance in internal and external collaborations: Absorptive capacity routines and social integration for innovation. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 42(1), 1–34. Google Scholar
    • Faems, D, B Van Looy and K Debackere [2005] Interorganizational collaboration and innovation: Toward a portfolio approach. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 22(3), 238–250. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Forbes, DP [2005] The effects of strategic decision making on entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29(5), 599–626. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Forrest, JE and MJC Martin [1992] Strategic alliances between large and small research intensive organizations: Experiences in the biotechnology industry. R&D Management, 22(1), 41–54. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Franke, N, M Gruber, D Harhoff and J Henkel [2006] What you are is what you like-similarity biases in venture capitalists’ evaluations of start-up teams. Journal of Business Venturing, 21(6), 802–826. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Gatewood, EJ, KG Shaver and WB Gartner [1995] A longitudinal study of cognitive factors influencing start-up behaviors and success at venture creation. Journal of Business Venturing, 10(5), 371–391. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Geum, Y, S Lee, B Yoon and Y Park [2013] Identifying and evaluating strategic partners for collaborative R&D: Index-based approach using patents and publications. Technovation, 33(6–7), 211–224. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Golden, BR [1992] The past is the past–or is it? The use of retrospective accounts as indicators of past strategy. Academy of Management Journal, 35(4), 848–860. ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Graebner, ME [2009] Caveat venditor: Trust asymmetries in acquisitions of entrepreneurial firms. The Academy of Management Journal, 52(3), 435–472. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Guertler, M and U Lindemann [2016] Identifying open innovation partners: A methodology for strategic partner selection. International Journal of Innovation Management, 20(5), 1640011-1–1640011-20. Link, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Gulati, R [1995] Does familiarity breed trust? The implications of repeated ties for contractual choice in alliances. Academy of Management Journal, 38(1), 85–112. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Gulati, R [1999] Network location and learning: The influence of network resources and firm capabilities on alliance formation. Strategic Management Journal, 20(5), 397–42. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Gundlach, GT, RS Achrol and JT Mentzer [1995] The structure of commitment in exchange. Journal of Marketing, 59(1), 78–92. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Hagedoorn, J [1993] Understanding the rationale of strategic technology partnering: Interorganizational modes of cooperation and sectoral differences. Strategic Management Journal, 14(5), 371–385. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Hair, JF, WC Black, BJ Babin and RE Anderson [2006] Multivariate Data Analysis: A Global Perspective, 6th Edn. London: Pearson-Education. Google Scholar
    • Hakanson, L [1993] Managing cooperative research and development: Partner selection and contract design. R&D Management, 23(4), 273–285. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Hébert, RF and AN Link [2006] The entrepreneur as innovator. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 31(5), 589–597. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
    • Haynie, JM, DA Shepherd and JS McMullen [2009] An opportunity for me? The role of resources in opportunity evaluation decisions. Journal of Management Studies, 46(3), 337–361. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Hofmann, DA [1997] An overview of the logic and rationale of hierarchical linear models. Journal of Management, 23(6), 723–744. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Hofmann, DA and MB Gavin [1998] Centering decisions in hierarchical linear models: Implications for research in organizations. Journal of Management, 24(5), 623–641. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Hofstede, G [1980] Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications. Google Scholar
    • Hogenhuis, BN, EA van den Hende and EJ Hultink [2017] Unlocking the innovation potential in large firms through timely and meaningful interactions with young ventures. International Journal of Innovation Management, 21(1), 1750009-1–1750009-29. Link, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Hollanders, H, N Es-Sadki and M Kanerva (2017). Regional innovation scoreboard (RIS) 2017. European Commission. Available at (Accessed 9 November 2017). Google Scholar
    • Holmberg, SR and JL Cummings [2009] Building successful strategic alliances strategic process and analytical tool for selecting partner industries and firms. Long Range Planning, 42(2), 164–193. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Hora, W, J Gast, N Kailer, A Rey-Marti and A Mas-Tur [2018] David and Goliath: Causes and effects of coopetition between start-ups and corporates. Review of Managerial Science, 12(2), 411–439. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Howard, M, KH Steensma, M Lyles and C Dhanaraj [2016] Learning to collaborate through collaboration: How allying with expert firms influences collaborative innovation within novice firms. Strategic Management Journal, 37(10), 2097–2103. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Inkpen, AC [2000] Learning through joint ventures: A framework of knowledge acquisition. Journal of Management Studies, 37(7), 1019–1043. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Jang, H, K Lee and B Yoon [2017] Development of an open innovation model for R&D collaboration between large firms and small-medium enterprises (SMES) in manufacturing industries. International Journal of Innovation Management, 21(1), 1750002-1–1750002-29. Link, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Judd, CM and GH McClelland [1989] Data Analysis: A Model Comparison Approach. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Google Scholar
    • Kalaignanam, K, V Shankar and R Varadarajan [2007] Asymmetric new product development alliances: Win-win or win-lose partnerships? Management Science, 53(3), 357–374. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Kale, P and H Singh [2009] Managing strategic alliances: What do we know now, and where do we go from here? Academy of Management Perspectives, 23(3), 45–62. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Kale, P, H Singh and H Perlmutter [2000] Learning and protection of proprietary assets in strategic alliances: Building relational capital. Strategic Management Journal, 21(3), 217–237. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Karren, RJ and MW Barringer [2002] A review and analysis of the policy-capturing methodology in organizational research: Guidelines for research and practice. Organizational Research Methods, 5(4), 337–361. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Katila, R, JD Rosenberger and KM Eisenhardt [2008] Swimming with sharks: Technology ventures, defence mechanisms and corporate relationships. Administrative Science Quarterly, 53(2), 295–332. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Kelly, MJ, JL Schaan and H Joncas [2002] Managing alliance relationships: Key challenges in the early stages of collaboration. R&D Management, 32(1), 11–22. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Kibler, E, C Mandl, T Kautonen and ESC Berger [2017] Attributes of legitimate venture failure impressions. Journal of Business Venturing, 32(2), 145–161. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Koellinger, P, M Minniti and C Schade [2007] “I think I can, I think I can”: Overconfidence and entrepreneurial behavior. Journal of Economic Psychology, 28(4), 502–527. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Lane, PJ and M Lubatkin [1998] Relative absorptive capacity and interorganizational learning. Strategic Management Journal, 19(5), 461–477. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Langowitz, N and M Minniti [2007] The entrepreneurial propensity of women. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31(3), 341–364. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Larrañeta, B, JLG González and R Aguilar [2017] Early efforts to develop absorptive capacity and their performance implications: Differences among corporate and independent ventures. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 42(3), 485–509. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Larson, A [1991] Partner networks: Leveraging external ties to improve entrepreneurial performance. Journal of Business Venturing, 6(3), 173–188. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Laursen, K and A Salter [2006] Open for innovation: The role of openness in explaining innovation performance among U.K. manufacturing firms. Strategic Management Journal, 27(2), 131–150. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Lohrke, FT, BB Olloway and TW Oolley [2010] Conjoint analysis in entrepreneurship research. Organizational Research Methods, 13(1), 16–30. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Luo, Y [2007] A coopetition perspective of global competition. Journal of World Business, 42(2), 129–144. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Mayer, RC, JH Davis and DF Schoorman [1995] An integrative model of organizational trust. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 709–734. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Mayer, RC and JH Davis [1999] The effect of the performance appraisal system on trust for management: A field quasi-experiment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(1), 123–136. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Maxwell, AL and M Lévesque [2014] Trustworthiness: A critical ingredient for entrepreneurs seeking Investors. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 38(5), 1057–1080. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • McAllister, DJ [1995] Affect- and cognition-based trust as foundations for interpersonal cooperation in organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 38(1), 24–59. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • McGee, JE, M Peterson, SL Mueller and JM Sequeira [2009] Entrepreneurial self-efficacy: Refining the measure. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(4), 965–988. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • McKnight, DH, LL Cummings and NL Chervany [1998] Initial trust formation in new organizational relationships. The Academy of Management Review, 23(3), 473–490. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Miao, C, S Qian and D Ma [2017] The relationship between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and firm performance: A meta-analysis of main and moderator effects. Journal of Small Business Management, 55(1), 87–107. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Minshall, T, L Mortara, R Valli and D Probert [2010] Making “Asymmetric” partnerships work. Research Technology Management, 53, 53–63. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Mitchell, JR and DA Shepherd [2010] To thine own self be true: Images of self, images of opportunity, and entrepreneurial action. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(1), 138–154. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Naman, JL and DP Slevin [1993] Entrepreneurship and the concept of fit: A model and empirical tests. Strategic Management Journal, 14(2), 137–153. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Narula, R [2004] R&D collaboration by SMEs: New opportunities and limitations in the face of globalization. Technovation, 24(2), 153–161. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Nieto, MJ and L Santamaría [2007] The importance of diverse collaborative networks for the novelty of product innovation. Technovation, 27(6–7), 367–377. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Norman, SM, BJ Avolio and F Luthans [2010] The impact of positivity and transparency on trust in leaders and their perceived effectiveness. The Leadership Quarterly, 21(3), 350–364. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • O’Brien, RM [2007] A caution regarding rules of thumb for variance inflation factors. Quality & Quantity, 41(5), 673–690. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Parker, SC [2006] Learning about the unknown: How fast do entrepreneurs adjust their beliefs? Journal of Business Venturing, 21(1), 1–26. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Reuer, JJ, A Ariño and T Mellewigt [2006] Entrepreneurial alliances as contractual forms. Journal of Business Venturing, 21(3), 306–325. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Rothaermel, FT and DL Deeds [2006] Alliance type, alliance experience and alliance management capability in high-technology ventures. Journal of Business Venturing, 21(4), 429–460. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Sarasvathy, SD and S Venkataraman [2011] Entrepreneurship as method: Open questions for an entrepreneurial future. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35(1), 113–135. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Schildt, HA, VJM Markku and T Keil [2005] Explorative and exploitative learning from external corporate ventures. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29(4), 493–515. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Schoorman, FD, RC Mayer and JH Davis [2007] An integrative model of organizational trust: Past, present, and future. Academy of Management Review, 32(2), 344–354. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Seppänen, R, K Blomqvist and S Sundqvist [2007] Measuring inter-organizational trust-a critical review of the empirical research in 1990-2003. Industrial Marketing Management, 36(2), 249–265. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Shane, S, EA Locke and CJ Collins [2003] Entrepreneurial motivation. Human Resource Management Review, 13(2), 257–279. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
    • Shepherd, DA, H Patzelt and RA Baron [2013] “I Care about Nature, but ”: Disengaging values in assessing opportunities that cause harm. Academy of Management Journal, 56(5), 1251–1273. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Shepherd, DA, TA Williams and H Patzelt [2015] Thinking about entrepreneurial decision making: Review and research agenda. Journal of Management, 41(1), 11–46. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Shepherd, DA and A Zacharakis [2001] The venture capitalist-entrepreneur relationship: Control, trust and confidence in co-operative behaviour. Venture Capital, 3(2), 129–149. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
    • Simon, H and J Leker [2016] Using startup communication for opportunity recognition: An approach to identify future product trends. International Journal of Innovation Management, 20(08), 1640016-1–1640016-22. LinkGoogle Scholar
    • Simon, M and RC Shrader [2012] Entrepreneurial actions and optimistic overconfidence: The role of motivated reasoning in new product introductions. Journal of Business Venturing, 27(3), 291–309. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Simon, M, SM Houghton and K Aquino [2000] Cognitive biases, risk perception, and venture formation: How individuals decide to start companies. Journal of Business Venturing, 15(2), 113–134. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Sommer, LP, S Heidenreich and M Handrich [2017] War for talents: How perceived organizational innovativeness affects employer attractiveness. R&D Management, 47(2), 299–310. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Sørensen, F and J Mattsson [2016] Speeding up innovation: Building network structures for parallel innovation. Journal of Innovation Management, 20(2), 1650024-1–1650024-30. Google Scholar
    • Spekman, RE, TM Forbes, LA Isabelle and TC MacAvoy [1998] Alliance management: A view from the past and a look to the future. Journal of Management Studies, 35(6), 747–772. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Spender, JC, V Corvello, M Grimaldi and P Rippa [2017] Start-ups and open innovation: A review of the literature. European Journal of Innovation Management, 20(1), 4–30. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Stajkovic, AD and F Luthans [1998] Self-efficacy and work-related performance: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 124(2), 240–261. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Steensma, HK, L Marino and KM Weaver [2000] Attitudes toward cooperative strategies: A cross-cultural analysis of entrepreneurs. Journal International Business Studies, 31(4), 591–609. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Stuart, TE, H Hoang and RC Hybels [1999] Interorganizational endorsements and the performance of entrepreneurial ventures. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(2), 315–349. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Stinchcombe, A [1965] Social structure and organizations. In Handbook of Organizations, J March (Ed.), pp. 142–193. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally. Google Scholar
    • Tether, BS [2002] Who co-operates for innovation, and why an empirical analysis. Research Policy, 31(6), 947–967. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Thomas, GF, R Zolin and JL Hartman [2009] The central role of communication in developing trust and its effect on employee involvement. Journal of Business Communication, 46(3), 287–310. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
    • Trevelya, R [2011] Self-regulation and effort in entrepreneurial tasks. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 17(1), 39–63. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
    • Usman, M and W Vanhaverbeke [2017] How start-ups successfully organize and manage open innovation with large companies. European Journal of Innovation Management, 20(1), 171–186. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Vancouver, JB, CM Thompson, ES Tischner and DJ Putka [2002] Two studies examining the negative effect of self-efficacy on performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(3), 506–516. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Vandaie, R and A Zaheer [2014] Surviving bear hugs: Firm capability, large partner alliances, and growth. Strategic Management Journal, 35(4), 566–577. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Walters, BA, S Peters and GD Gregory [1994] Strategic alliances and joint ventures: Making them work. Business Horizons, 37(4), 5–10. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
    • Wang, H, PJ Peverelli and AG Bossink [2015] The development of asymmetric trust in cooperation between large firms and SMEs: Insights from China. Group Decision and Negotiation, 24(5), 925–947. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Weiblen, T and HW Chesbrough [2015] Engaging with start-ups to enhance corporate innovation. California Management Review, 57(2), 66–90. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Wiklund, J and DA Shepherd [2008] Portfolio entrepreneurship: Habitual and novice founders, new entry, and mode of organizing. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 32(4), 701–725. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Wiklund, J, P Davidsson and F Delmar [2003] What do they think and feel about growth? An expectancy value approach to small business managers’ attitudes toward growth. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 27(3), 37–48. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
    • Woltman, H, A Feldstain, JC MacKay and M Rocchi [2012] An introduction to hierarchical linear modeling. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 8(1), 52–69. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
    • Wood, MS, A McKelvie and JM Haynie [2014] Making it personal: Opportunity individuation and the shaping of opportunity beliefs. Journal of Business Venturing, 29(2), 252–272. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Wood, MS and DW Williams [2014] Opportunity evaluation as rule-based decision making. Journal of Management Studies, 51(4), 573–602. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Yu, GJ and J Lee [2017] When should a firm collaborate with research organizations for innovation performance? The moderating role of innovation orientation, size, and age. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 42(6), 1451–1465. Crossref, ISIGoogle Scholar
    • Zaheer, A and JD Harris [2006] Interorganizational Trust. In Handbook of Strategic Alliances, O ShenkarJ Reuder (Eds.), pp. 169–197. California: Sage Publications. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
    • Zander, I [2007] Do you see what I mean? An entrepreneurship perspective on the nature and boundaries of the firm. Journal of Management, 44(7), 1141–1164. ISIGoogle Scholar
    Published: 21 January 2019
    Remember to check out the Most Cited Articles!

    Be inspired by these New Titles in Business and Management