World Scientific
  • Search
Skip main navigation

Cookies Notification

We use cookies on this site to enhance your user experience. By continuing to browse the site, you consent to the use of our cookies. Learn More

System Upgrade on Tue, May 28th, 2024 at 2am (EDT)

Existing users will be able to log into the site and access content. However, E-commerce and registration of new users may not be available for up to 12 hours.
For online purchase, please visit us again. Contact us at [email protected] for any enquiries.


    In this article the technological possibilities offered by the interoperability standard High Level Architecture (HLA) are introduced and discussed. The main focus is hereby on manufacturing applications, but the same approach is applicable to a wide range of other scenarios, e.g. in the area of supply chains, logistics, product simulation etc.

    Especially for challenging objectives like the digital factory which many enterprises are currently facing, simulation applications are gaining growing importance. While simulations nowadays are often still applied for isolated problems, the consideration of the global context has a growing importance. A solution for solving this problem is offered by the distributed simulation paradigm: simulations are no longer single purpose applications. Rather, individual simulation models can be combined with each other for serving different purposes. Coupled simulations of different parts of a factory can be used to perform global optimizations. The same paradigm can be used for entire supply chains.

    For applying the distributed simulation paradigm, technological as well as organizational aspects have to be considered. On the technological side, it is necessary to integrate a certain interoperability standard into the tools which need to be coupled with each other. On the organizational level, an enterprise wide process has to be established, which defines how distributed modeling and simulation shall be applied. This article discusses solutions for both issues and illustrates them using a practical application scenario.


    • Verein Deutscher Ingenieure , VDI-Richtlinien, Simulation von Logistik-, Materialfluβund Produktionssystem, Begriffsdefinition ( VDI-Gesellschaft Fördertechnik Materialfluß Logistik , Düsseldorf , 1993 ) . Google Scholar
    • R.   Fujimoto , Parallel and Distributed Simulation Systems , 1st edn. ( Wiley & Sons, Inc. , New York , 2000 ) . Google Scholar
    • C.   McLean , F.   Riddick and A.   Jones , An architecture for distributed manufacturing simulation ( National Institute of Standards and Technology , Gaithersburg , 2000 ) . Google Scholar
    • H.   Mehl , Methoden verteilter Simulation , 1st edn. ( Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH , Braunschweig/Wiesbaden , 1994 ) . CrossrefGoogle Scholar
    • Lockheed Martin SAVE Team, Architecture and Tool Integration Specification Release 3.0, 1998 . Google Scholar
    • Object Management Group, Url: , . Google Scholar
    • S.   Straßburger , Distributed Simulation Based on the High Level Architecture in Civilian Application Domains , 1st edn. ( Society for Computer Simulation International , Ghent , 2001 ) . Google Scholar
    • U.S. Defense Modeling and Simulation Office, Url: , . Google Scholar
    • Nato Simulation Masterplan, Version 1.0, 1998 . Google Scholar
    • Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization, Url: , . Google Scholar
    • National Institute for Standards and Technology, Url: , . Google Scholar
    • IEEE Standard 1516, Standard for Modeling and Simulation (M&S) High Level Architecture (HLA), 2000 . Google Scholar
    • K.   Mertins and M.   Rabe (Herausgeber) , The new simulation in production and logistics — Prospects, views and attitudes , Proc. 9th Dedicated ASIM Conf. . Google Scholar
    • F. Riddick, The distributed manufacturing simulation adapter, Presentation, October 2000 . Google Scholar
    • The Virtual Technology Corporation, Url: , . Google Scholar
    • F.   Buschmann et al. , Pattern orientierte Softwarearchitektur ( Addison-Wesley , 1995 ) . Google Scholar
    • S.   Straßburger et al. , Using HLA ownership management in distributed material flow simulations , Proc. 2002 European Simulation Interoperability Workshop . Google Scholar
    • Web Services Specification, W3C Consortium, Url: , . Google Scholar