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HYPERMATRIX ALGEBRA AND IRREDUCIBLE ARITY IN HIGHER-ORDER SYSTEMS: CONCEPTS AND PERSPECTIVES

    https://doi.org/10.1142/S0219525923500078Cited by:1 (Source: Crossref)

    Theoretical and computational frameworks of complexity science are dominated by binary structures. This binary bias, seen in the ubiquity of pair-wise networks and formal binary operations in mathematical models, limits our capacity to faithfully capture irreducible polyadic interactions in higher-order systems. A paradigmatic example of a higher-order interaction is the Borromean link of three interlocking rings. In this paper, we propose a mathematical framework via hypergraphs and hypermatrix algebras that allows to formalize such forms of higher-order bonding and connectivity in a parsimonious way. Our framework builds on and extends current techniques in higher-order networks — still mostly rooted in binary structures such as adjacency matrices — and incorporates recent developments in higher-arity structures to articulate the compositional behavior of adjacency hypermatrices. Irreducible higher-order interactions turn out to be a widespread occurrence across natural sciences and socio-cultural knowledge representation. We demonstrate this by reviewing recent results in computer science, physics, chemistry, biology, ecology, social science, and cultural analysis through the conceptual lens of irreducible higher-order interactions. We further speculate that the general phenomenon of emergence in complex systems may be characterized by spatio-temporal discrepancies of interaction arity.

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