World Scientific
  • Search
  •   
Skip main navigation

Cookies Notification

We use cookies on this site to enhance your user experience. By continuing to browse the site, you consent to the use of our cookies. Learn More
×

System Upgrade on Tue, May 28th, 2024 at 2am (EDT)

Existing users will be able to log into the site and access content. However, E-commerce and registration of new users may not be available for up to 12 hours.
For online purchase, please visit us again. Contact us at [email protected] for any enquiries.
https://doi.org/10.1142/S0218495820500156Cited by:7 (Source: Crossref)

The impact of traits in entrepreneurship has been subject to intense discussion. Apart from favorable traits fostering opportunity recognition, entrepreneurial orientation, venture performance, and other variables, a younger research stream also addresses the role of negative traits. Among them, the dark triad, comprising of narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy, have gained specific attention. This systematic literature review aims to structure the field, identify current research themes, and provide a better understanding of prior research outcomes. Our results show that dark triad research addresses entrepreneurial activity, opportunity recognition, entrepreneurial orientation, entrepreneurial leadership, the and entrepreneurial motives. Among the dark triad traits, narcissism is stressed most in research so far. It relates to firm performance, risk, and leadership behavior, whereas Machiavellianism and psychopathy relate to opportunity recognition and exploitation. We also identify several research gaps, which can be addressed in future research.

References

  • Ackerman, R. A., Witt, E. A., Donnellan, B., Trzesniewski, K. H., Robins, R. W. and Kashy, D. A. [2011] What does the Narcissistic Personality Inventory really measure? Assessment 18 :67–87. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Ahmed, S. U. [1985] nAch, Risk-taking Propensity, Locus of Control and entrepreneurship. Personality and Individual Differences 6(6) :781–782. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Ahsan, M. [2017] The right people at the right time — The place does not matter. Academy of Management Review 42(1) :145–148. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Akhtar, R., Ahmetoglu, G. and Chamorro-Premuzic, T. [2013] Greed is good? Assessing the relationship between entrepreneurship and subclinical psychopathy. Personality and Individual Differences 54(3) :420–425. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Aldrich, H. E. (1992). Methods in our madness? Trends in entrepreneurship research. In: Sexton, D. L./Kasarda, J. P. (Eds.), The state of the art of entrepreneurship, Boston, MA, 191–213. Google Scholar
  • Baldegger, U., Schroeder, S. H. and Furtner, M. R. [2017] The self-loving entrepreneur: Dual narcissism and entrepreneurial intention. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing 9(4) :373–391. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Bouncken, R. B., Gast, J., Kraus, S. and Bogers, M. [2015] Coopetition: A systematic review, synthesis, and future research directions. Review of Managerial Science 9(3) :577–601. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Bouncken, R., Cesinger, B. and Tiberius, V. [2020] Narcissism, machiavellianism, and psychopathy of top managers — can entrepreneurial orientation secure performance? International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing 12(3) :273–302. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Brandstätter, H. [1997] Becoming an entrepreneur: A question of personality structure? Journal of Economic Psychology 18(2–3) :157–177. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Brandstätter, H. [2011] Personality aspects of entrepreneurship: A look at five meta-analyses. Personality and Individual Differences 51(3) :222–230. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Braun, M. (2013). Die Eignung von Entrepreneurial Orientation zur Beschreibung von Archetypen bei Kleinen und Mittleren Unternehmen. Technische Universität Chemnitz: Universitätsverlag Chemnitz. Google Scholar
  • Briggs Myers, I. (1995). Gifts differing: Understanding personality type. Mountain View, CA: Davies-Black Publishing. Google Scholar
  • Campbell, W. K., Hoffman, B. J., Campbell, S. M. and Marchisio, G. [2011] Narcissism in organizational contexts. Human Resource Management Review 21 :268–284. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Cattell, H. E. P. and Schuerger, J. M. (2003). Essentials of 16PF assessment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Google Scholar
  • Chell, E. [2008] The nascent entrepreneur, business development and the role of human resources. In: Barrett, R.Mayson, S. (eds.). International handbook of entrepreneurship and HRM, 2nd. ed. Cheltenham, UK & Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 21–46. Google Scholar
  • Costa, P. T. and McCrae, R. R. [1992] Revised NEO personality inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO five factor inventory (NEO-FFI). Professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources Trans. Google Scholar
  • Do, B. R. and Dadvari, A. [2017] The influence of the dark triad on the relationship between entrepreneurial attitude orientation and entrepreneurial intention: A study among students in Taiwan University. Asia Pacific Management Review 22(4) :185–191. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Eggers, F. and Kraus, S. [2011] Growing Young SMEs in Hard Economic Times: The Impact of Entrepreneurial and Customer Orientations — A Qualitative Study from Silicon Valley. Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship 24 :99–111. Google Scholar
  • Engelen, A., Neumann, C. and Schmidt, S. [2016] Should entrepreneurially oriented firms have narcissistic CEOs? Journal of Management 42(3) :698–721. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Eysenck, H. J. and Eysenck, S. B. G. (1975). Manual of the Eysenck personality questionnaire. Kent, UK: Hodder & Stoughton. Google Scholar
  • Fennimore, A. and Sementelli, A. [2016] Public entrepreneurship and sub-clinical psychopaths: a conceptual frame and implications. International Journal of Public Sector Management 29(6) :612–634. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Ferreira, J. J. M., Fernandes, C. I. and Kraus, S. [2019] Entrepreneurship research: Mapping intellectual structures and research trends. Review of Managerial Science 13 :181–205. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Filser, M., Tiberius, V., Kraus, S., Zeitlhofer, T., Kailer, N. and Müller, A. [2020] Opportunity Recognition: Conversational foundations and pathways ahead. Entrepreneurship Research Journal, 20200124, in press. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Furnham, A., Richards, S. C. and Paulhus, D. L. [2013] The Dark Triad of personality: A 10 year review. Social and Personality Psychology Compass 7(3) :199–216. Google Scholar
  • Ghislieri, C. and Gatti, P. [2012] Generativity and balance in leadership. Leadership 8(3) :257–275. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Glenn, A. L. and Sellbom, M. [2015] Theoretical and empirical concerns regarding the dark triad as a construct. Journal of Personality Disorders 29(3) :360–377. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Gorgievski, M. J. and Stephan, U. [2016] Advancing the psychology of entrepreneurship: A review of the psychological literature and an introduction. Applied Psychology 65(3) :437–468. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Grijalva, E. and Harms, P. D. [2014] Narcissism: An integrative synthesis and dominance complementarity model. The Academy of Management Perspectives 28(2) :108–127. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Grijalva, E. and Newman, D. A. [2015] Narcissism and Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB): Meta-Analysis and Consideration of Collectivist Culture, Big Five Personality, and Narcissism’s Facet Structure. Applied Psychology 64 :93–126. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Gui-Feng, D. [2017] Relationship between narcissism and entrepreneurial intention in college students. Chinese Mental Health Journal 31(2) :156–161. Google Scholar
  • Heinz, A. J., Freeman, M. A., Harpaz-Rotem, I. and Pietrzak, R. H. [2017] American military veteran entrepreneurs: A comprehensive profile of demographic, service history, and psychosocial characteristics. Military Psychology 29(6) :513. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Hisrich, R., Langan-Fox, J. and Grant, S. [2007] Entrepreneurship research and practice: A call to action for psychology. American Psychologist 62(6) :575. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Hmieleski, K. M. and Lerner, D. A. [2016] The dark triad and nascent entrepreneurship: An examination of unproductive versus productive entrepreneurial motives. Journal of Small Business Management 54(S1) :7–32. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Humphreys, J. H., Pane Haden, S., Novicevic, M. M., Clayton, R. W. and Whitney Gibson, J. [2011] Lillian McMurry of trumpet records: Integrity and authenticity in the charismatic, constructive narcissist leader. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies 18(1) :40–55. Google Scholar
  • Jakobwitz, S. and Egan, V. [2006] The dark triad and normal personality traits. Personality and Individual Differences 40(2) :331–339. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Jonason, P. K. and Webster, G. D. [2010] The dirty dozen: A concise measure of the dark triad. Psychological Assessment 22(2) :420–432. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Jonason, P. K., Webster, G. D., Schmitt, D. P., Li, N. P. and Crysel, L. [2012] The antihero in popular culture: Life history theory and the dark triad personality traits. Review of General Psychology 16(2) :192. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Jonason, P. K., Sitnikova, M. and Oshio, A. [2018] The Dark Triad traits and views of time in three countries. Personality and Individual Differences 120 :107–111. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Jones, D. N. and Paulhus, D. L. [2014] Introducing the short dark triad (SD3) a brief measure of dark personality traits. Assessment 21(1) :28–41. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Kramer, M., Cesinger, B., Schwarzinger, D. and Gelléri, P. [2011] Investigating entrepreneurs’ dark personality: How narcissism, machiavellianism, and psychopathy relate to entrepreneurial intention. In: Proceedings of the 25th ANZAM conference. Google Scholar
  • Kraus, S., Berchtold, J., Palmer, C. and Filser, M. [2017] Entrepreneurial Orientation: The Dark Triad of Executive Personality. Journal of Promotion Management 24(5) :715–735. Google Scholar
  • Kraus, S., Breier, M. and Dasí-Rodríguez, S. [2020] The art of crafting a systematic literature review in entrepreneurship research. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal 16(3) :1023–1042. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Lee, K. and Ashton, M. C. [2005] Psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and Narcissism in the Five-Factor Model and the HEXACO model of personality structure. Personality and Individual Differences 38(7) :1571–1582. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Lumpkin, G. T. and Dess, G. G. [1996] Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to performance. Academy of Management Review 21(1) :135–172. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Marshall, A. and Ojiako, U. [2015] A realist philosophical understanding of entrepreneurial risk-taking. Society and Business Review 10(2) :178–193. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Mathieu, C. and St-Jean, É. [2013] Entrepreneurial personality: The role of narcissism. Personality and Individual Differences 55(5) :527–531. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • McHoskey, J. [1995] Narcissism and machiavellianism. Psychological Reports 77(3) :755–759. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Miller, D. [1983] The correlates of entrepreneurship in three types of firms. Management Science 29(7) :770–791. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Miller, D. [2015] A downside to the entrepreneurial personality? Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 39(1) :1–8. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Miller, D. [2016] Response to “Research on the Dark Side of Personality Traits in Entrepreneurship. Observations From an Organizational Behavior Perspective”. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 40(1) :19–24. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Muris, P., Merckelbach, H., Otgaar, H. and Meijer, E. [2017] The malevolent side of human nature: A meta-analysis and critical review of the literature on the dark triad (narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy). Perspectives on Psychological Science 12(2) :183–204. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Navis, C. and Ozbek, O. V. [2016] The right people in the wrong places: The paradox of entrepreneurial entry and successful opportunity realization. Academy of Management Review 41(1) :109–129. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Navis, C. and Ozbek, O. V. [2017] Why context matters: Overconfidence, narcissism, and the role of objective uncertainty in entrepreneurship. Academy of Management Review 42(1) :148–153. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Obschonka, M., Lievens, F., Wille, B. and De Fruyt, F. [2015] Does self-employed work make individuals not only more entrepreneurial but also more narcissistic and antisocial? A 15-year longitudinal personality-based analysis. Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research 35(3) :2. Google Scholar
  • Okhomina, D. [2010] Entrepreneurial orientation and psychological traits: the moderating influence of supportive environment. Journal of Behavioral Studies in Business 2 :1. Google Scholar
  • Palmer, C., Niemand, T., Stöckmann, C., Kraus, S. and Kailer, N. [2019] The interplay of entrepreneurial orientation and psychological traits in explaining firm performance. Journal of Business Research 94 :183–194. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Paulhus, D. L. and Williams, K. M. [2002] The dark triad of personality: Narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. Journal of Research in Personality 36(6) :556–563. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Paulhus, D. L. [2014] Toward a Taxonomy of Dark Personalities. Current Directions in Psychological Science 23 :421–426. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Prommer, L., Tiberius, V. and Kraus, S. [2020] Exploring the future of startup leadership development. Journal of Business Venturing Insights 14 :e00200. Google Scholar
  • Rauch, A. and Frese, M. [2007] Let’s put the person back into entrepreneurship research: A meta-analysis on the relationship between business owners’ personality traits, business creation, and success. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 16(4) :353–385. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Rauthmann, J. F. and Kolar, G. P. [2012] How “dark” are the Dark Triad traits? Examining the perceived darkness of narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. Personality and Individual Differences 53 :884–889. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Rauthmann, J. F. [2012] Towards multifaceted Machiavellianism: Content, factorial, and construct validity of a German Machiavellianism Scale. Personality and Individual Differences 52 :345–351. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Smith, R. and McElwee, G. [2011] After the fall: Developing a conceptual script-based model of shame in narratives of entrepreneurs in crisis! International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 31(1/2) :91–109. Google Scholar
  • Smith, M. B., Hill, A. D., Wallace, J. C., Recendes, T. and Judge, T. A. [2018] Upsides to dark and downsides to bright personality: A multidomain review and future research agenda. Journal of Management 44(1) :191–217. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Spain, S. M., Harms, P. and Lebreton, J. M. [2014] The dark side of personality at work. Journal of Organizational Behavior 35(S1) :41–60. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Spurk, D., Keller, A. C. and Hirschi, A. [2016] Do bad guys get ahead or fall behind? Relationships of the dark triad of personality with objective and subjective career success. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 7. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Stewart, W. H. Jr. and Roth, P. L. [2007] A Meta-Analysis of Achievement Motivation Differences between Entrepreneurs and Managers. Journal of Small Business Management 45 :401–421. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Tett, R. P. and Burnett, D. D. [2003] A personality trait-based interactionist model of job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology 88 :500–517. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Tiberius, V. [2019] Entrepreneurs on the couch: Learning from Midas. Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal 25(2) :8. Google Scholar
  • Todorovic, Z. W. and Schlosser, F. K. [2007] An entrepreneur and a leader! A framework conceptualizing the influence of leadership style on a firm’s entrepreneurial orientation — performance relationship. Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship 20(3) :289–307. Google Scholar
  • Tranfield, D., Denyer, D. and Smart, P. [2003] Towards a methodology for developing evidence-informed management knowledge by means of systematic review. British Journal of Management 14(3) :207–222. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Tucker, R. L., Lowman, G. H. and Marino, L. D. (2016). Dark Triad Traits and the Entrepreneurial Process: A Person-Entrepreneurship Perspective. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 245–290, Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Google Scholar
  • Veselka, L., Schermer, J. A. and Vernon, P. A. [2012] The Dark Triad and an expanded framework of personality. Personality and Individual Differences 53(4), 417–425. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Wales, W. J., Gupta, V. K. and Mousa, F. T. [2013a] Empirical research on entrepreneurial orientation: An assessment and suggestions for future research. International Small Business Journal 31(4) :357–383. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Wales, W. J., Patel, P. C. and Lumpkin, G. T. [2013b] In pursuit of greatness: CEO narcissism, entrepreneurial orientation, and firm performance variance. Journal of Management Studies 50(6) :1041–1069. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Wiklund, J. and Shepherd, D. [2005] Entrepreneurial orientation and small business performance: A configurational approach. Journal of Business Venturing 20(1) :71–91. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Zeigler-Hill, V., Clark, C. B. and Pickard, J. D. [2008] Narcissistic subtypes and contingent self-esteem: do all narcissists base their self-esteem on the same domains? Journal of Personality 76(4) :753–774. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Zhao, H. and Seibert, S. E. [2006] The big five personality dimensions and entrepreneurial status: A meta-analytical review. Journal of Applied Psychology 91(2) :259–271. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Zhao, H., Seibert, S. E. and Lumpkin, G. T. [2010] The relationship of personality to entrepreneurial intentions and performance: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Management 36(2) :381–404. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar