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Pulsed Charge Model of Fault Behavior Producing Seismic Electric Signals (SES) by:13 (Source: Crossref)

    The electromagnetic (EM) behavior of a geological fault is postulated to follow the mathematical model of a fault in seismology that illustrates seismic EM anomalies EMAs). Charge densities, +q and -q in C/m2 are generated at a fault zone by the change in seismic stress, α as dq/dt = -αdσ/dt - q/∊ρ, where σ,∊ and ρ are the charge generation constants measured in C/N, dielectric constant and reisitivity of bedrocks, respectively. A fault of length, 2a, plane area, A and the displacement or rupture time, τ gives pulsed charge densities, +q(t) and -q(t), or a dipole moment of P(t) = 2aAq(t) = αM0[∊ρ/(τ - ∊ρ) - exp(-t/∊ρ)] using the earthquake moment M0. Maxwell's equations for this dipole in a conductive earth give power spectra of EM waves at diferrent distances. Seismic electric signals (SES) including the DC VAN method can be explained as EM waves. Electrons with density n in the atmosphere are accelerated by the electric field and travel a distance l. resulting in the exictation and ionization of atmospheric molecules leading to earthquake lightning (EQL). They also polarize the ionosphere by disturbing the transmission of EM waves prior to an earthquake and artificial electronic noises. The same pulsed field surprised eels and hamsters, suggesting seismic anomalous animal ehavious animal behavior (SAAB) as electro-physiological responses to the stimuli of electric pulses.

    This letter was recommended by Associate Editor I. Shirakawa.