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Chapter 10: Nanostructures and Allergy


    Nanostructures can interact with biological systems, e.g., the immune system, inducing a response to these foreign elements in different ways, including the induction of phagocytosis and activation or inhibition of the immune cells. However, it can also respond by triggering hypersensitivity or allergy reactions. The process of allergy to nanostructures is still relatively unknown, but the process of pseudoallergy (which involves complement activation and inflammatory responses) is the one most described. This chapter summarizes the types of hypersensitivity reactions, the most frequent symptoms, several examples of allergy induced by nanomaterials, and the most common methods of diagnosis.